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专家用范文讲解托福作文如何来审题_专家讲解_亿佰论文网

  • 简介:议论文亦称论说文,目的在于论说一种观点。论说的过程包含对别的观点的驳斥。托福中议论文作文题所给的条件一般包括一个问题,两种观点或几种挑选,要求考生加以评论,提出自己的看法,或挑选,并说明理由。    
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议论文亦称论说文,目的在于论说一种观点。论说的过程包含对别的观点的驳斥。托福中议论文作文题所给的条件一般包括一个问题,两种观点或几种挑选,要求考生加以评论,提出自己的看法,或挑选,并说明理由。

  托福议论文的作文题特点决定了作文写法的基本框架,准备时应主要练习两种写法,第一种是演绎法,及把自己的观点在文章的前部直截了当地摆出,然后再把论据一条一条地叙述,支持前面的观点。论据可以合写成一段,也可以按一个论据一个自然段的方式排列。论据写完后,文章便可以结束,也可以再加一段,复提前面的观点,并作进一步的阐说。第二种是回纳法,摘用与演绎法相反的手段,显逐条分析,列出论据,最后自然地得出结论,表明自己的观点。无论何种方法,论据应力求全面客观,实事求是,以增强说服力。

   议论文对语言的要求主要体现在三个方面:第一,要用恰当的逻辑词表示文章的逻辑性。第二,要注意自然段与主题句的运用,即用自然段表示出文章的逻辑性,并在每段中用主题句说明要点,给人一目了然的感觉。第三个复要方面是句型结构,写作时应注意每句的复心和句与句之间的衔接,使句意一环扣一环避免松散。

  [范文一]
  题目:More than ever before, married couples today are choosing not to have children. These couples say that children bring more misery than joy. Do you believe that the advantages of having children overweigh the disadvantages? Or do you think that married couple have a better life without children? In a brief essay, discuss both positions and explain which position you support.

  [试题分析]
  一条件: 现在的情况/与过去相比/已婚夫妇不愿要孩子/理由是孩子带来的烦恼多于快乐
  二要求: 回答两个问题:有小孩的利是否大于弊? 不生小孩的夫妇生活是否更好一些?
  三写作分析: 本题是熟题,但有的考生可能因为本人经历而尚未考虑过此事,需要暂时构思.本片用演绎法和回纳法都可以。下笔前应先确定文章的主题是利弊分析,应当言之有理条理清楚,自己的观点由自己决定,对文章好坏影响不大。

  One of the greatest changes in family life no wadays is that many couples decide not to have any children because they think that children bring more misery than joy. To my mind, these couples are not only short-sighted but also selfish.

  It is an undeniable fact that a married couple without children have more opportunities to get jobs, enjoy the freedom from the troubles and worries caused by children, and can spend all the money they earn for their own pleasure and comforts, but they should not forget that there are also three outweighing advantages in having children. Firstly, children can bring a great deal of joy to a couple, especially after the honey moon of the first happy years. Secondly, children may bring some cohesive force to a family. This is because family conflicts are unavoidable and can snowball, leading to broken marriages. With a child or children in a family, the two sides of the conflicts can easily reach a compromise or mutual understanding unless there is something really serious. Thirdly, a couple without children will be helpless when they are too old to help themselves. They can ask others for help, but "Blood is thicker than water"; they can never enjoy the reliable and timely help from their off springs. In short, from a long point of view, the advantages of having children overweigh those of having no children.

  From a social point of view, those who choose to be childless are selfish and irresponsible. Human society needs to carry on and its members should give birth to babies, bring them up, and educate them according to the requirements of society. If everybody escapes from these responsibilities out of selfish considerations, there will be no human beings on the planet of earth. This view of mine, however, does not mean that we should have as many children as possible. If we are responsible members of the human society, we should also limit the number of our children according to the social requirements. ONT>
  文章摘用演绎法,在第一段就表达了作者观点,形成主题句。主题句起统领下文的作用,决定了下文的内容与写法。因此,第二段在肯定优点的同时指出了生小孩的三个优点,并逐一说明。第三段环绕第一段的主题句,从社会角度说明不要孩子是自私和部负责任的表现。文章最后说明作者赞同要小孩,但主张对孩子的数量进行控制。 这样写,观点容易被接受。

  [范文二]
  题目:Should a person with an incurable illness spend his last days in a hospital where he or she can receive the best possible medical care? Or should this person be permitted to die at home? In a brief essay, respond to the above questions. Be sure to explain which position you support.

  [试题分析]
  一条件:患不治之症的患者/在人世间的最后一段时间/来医院接受最好的医疗与护理/答应在家谢世。
  二 要求:就上述条件与两种处理方法发表意见,说明你支持何种做法。
  三 写作分析:本题是世界范畴内经常争辩的话题,但至今无定论.写作时可支持任何观点,写法用演绎法或回纳法。

   Should a person with an incurable illness spend his last days in a hospital where he or she can receive the best possible medical care? Or should this person be permitted to die at home? These two questions are difficult to answer and may cause some heated arguments. My view is that we have to consider two different situations and make our decisions accordingly.

  The first possible situation is that the patient is still conscious and able to express himself. In this case, we should talk to him and find out his own opinion. If he wishes to stay in a hospital, we should send him there and try to get the best medical care for him no matter how much it will cost. If he wants to stay at home, we should show respect for his opinion and do our best at home for him no matter how troublesome it may be. The rationale of this view is that the best we can do for a dying person is to satisfy his last wishes except when he wants anthanasia in a country in which it is still illegal. The other possible situation is that the patient is no longer able to express himself. In this case, it is better to let him stay at home and spend his last days with his relatives. This view is based on the following considerations. This first is that since the patient is going to die anyway, it is better for him to die at home instead of a place where his relatives are not allowed to stay with him all the time. The second is that it would be a waste of money, time, and energy to hospitalize the patient. The third is that what a hospital can do for a dying person can only bring more suffering to him. For instance, operations or intravenous drips are useless and painful and fist aids applied to him can only make him live longer to suffer more. The best thing a hospital can do is to reduce his pains in his last days, but this can also be done at home.

  In short, my view is that when the questions are considered objectively, the answer is clear: it is better for him, for his relatives, and for society if the patient stays and dies at home. However, as human beings, we cannot discuss a patient without emotional considerations. To fully understand this position, we can just imagine how we would feel if one of our realties were suffering from an incurable illness.

  [范文写作分析]
   对于这个涉及来复杂而又微妙的感情之事,作者避免了简单的表态方式。文章摘用演绎法,在第一段摆明自己的观点,然后详细说明,最后再进一步说明,处理感情方面的考虑。
  第一段 叙述条件,摆明观点
  第二段 病人清醒情况下的做法
  第三段 病人无法表达意愿时的做法
  第四段 强调自己观点的合理性
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